In Bulgaria, Soviet War Memorials Are Turning Into Ghosts

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In Bulgaria, Soviet War Memorials Are Turning Into Ghosts

SOFIA — It’s hard to miss the giant, 11-meter-tall statue towering over Plovdiv, proudly atop the Bulgarian city’s second-highest hill.

Named Alyosha, a generic diminutive used to refer to Soviet soldiers, the giant figure honors the Red Army soldiers who fought in Bulgaria during World War II. Some sources, including the Russian Foreign Ministry, claim that Alyosha was based on a photo of a real Russian soldier who was fighting in Bulgaria at the time.

The monument to the Red Army in the Black Sea city of Burgas.

With Russia now waging an unprovoked war against Ukraine, Soviet war memorials across Eastern Europe have attracted renewed attention, with monuments honoring the Red Army recently torn down in Poland and Latvia.

French artist Mitch Brezunek found a new and unique way to confront the past: by turning Alyosha into a ghost. The digital tinkering is part of his exhibition, The Ghost Is Here, which opened on September 9 in Plovdiv, Bulgaria’s second largest city and cultural heart.

During communist rule, Red Army memorials were built throughout Bulgaria to honor Soviet soldiers and the role they played in defeating Nazi Germany in World War II. They were seen as symbols of Bulgarian-Soviet friendship, even though the Red Army occupied Bulgaria and the Soviet Union declared war on the country in 1944.

Brezunek digitally transformed a monument to the Soviet Army in Sofia.

Brezunek digitally transformed a monument to the Soviet Army in Sofia.

After the fall of communism, Soviet monuments and war memorials became lightning rods for discussion and reckoning with the past across the former Eastern Bloc. Angered by the Soviet occupation and more recent Russian military interventions, many advocated the removal of the statues and monuments — proposals that drew the ire of Russian officials and led to public and diplomatic spats.

In Bulgaria, there were several attempts to have Alyosha removed, but none were successful.

When Estonia removed a World War II monument from downtown Tallinn in 2007, the city was rocked by violent riots, and the country suffered a massive cyber attack that was later blamed on Russian hackers.

In a piece called Oligarchies, the Red Army monument in Varna is upgraded with a luxury yacht.

In a piece called Oligarchies, the Red Army monument in Varna is upgraded with a luxury yacht.

Born in France in 1989, Brezunek has been living and working in Plovdiv since 2016. However, the Soviet monuments made an impression on him when he first came to Bulgaria 12 years ago and began to learn about the country’s history.

“These monuments are everywhere here. They never go unnoticed because of their size and location. In Plovdiv, for example, Alyosha dominates the city and the sky,” the Frenchman told RFE/RL. “It’s impossible not to ask yourself every time you see the monument: ‘Why is it here? And how did it end up here and what message does it send us?'”

In his show, Brezunek transforms images of 12 Soviet monuments in different cities across Bulgaria, their transformations, the artist said, not only a message about the past, but also a reflection on Bulgaria’s present as a member of the European Union.

Monuments are around us for a reason, Brezunek said when promoting the show, to remind us of the past and the mistakes we’ve made.

“Can we learn from past missteps and create a better future? The ghost is here to remind us that history often repeats itself,” says Brezunek.

The shrouded Alyosha at Brezunek's exhibition.

The shrouded Alyosha at Brezunek’s exhibition.

The centerpiece of the exhibition is a 7.5 meter high screen where a slightly smaller Alyosha is transformed into a giant ghost. The other Red Army monuments that Brezunek digitally transformed are the Hill of Soviet Soldiers in the city of Dobrich and the Monument of Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship in the port and seaside resort of Varna. Other monuments were in Sofia, Burgas, Stara Zagora, Ruse and Byala Slatina.

Together, they all form the final component of Brezunek’s exhibition, a 3D digital map, showing, in the artist’s words, the “two faces of Bulgaria”. On one side is the past, the monuments of the Soviet army, and on the other, “the present, Bulgaria’s membership of the European Union.”

Brezunek also used his art to make money for Ukraine, which has been waging an all-out war against Russia since February 24. A 3D video animation of Alyosha becoming a ghost is sold as a non-fungible token (NFT). a unique digital collectible built on blockchain technology:

According to the exhibition organizers, every week until November 9, every 3D artwork of the monuments will be sold in flood, with 70 percent of the revenue supporting artists and cultural events in Ukraine and Bulgaria.

In recent years, NFTs have gained popularity in the worlds of art, culture and sports, despite regulatory and environmental concerns. “3D is fantastic property as you have no physical limitations, so you can really explore a new kind of creative freedom,” Brezunek told RFE/RL.

The Soviet monument in Dobrich.

The Soviet monument in Dobrich.

According to Brezunek, the digital artwork is only the first phase of the project. In 2023, he plans a physical installation at the Alyosha monument: “I would very much like to see Alyosha as a ghost under a golden robe,” he said.

The date – September 9 – that Brezunek chose to open the exhibition was no coincidence. Four days earlier, in 1944, the Soviet Union had declared war on Axis-aligned Bulgaria. And on September 9, there was a coup, during which the government of Konstantin Muravief was overthrown and the pro-communist resistance movement, the Fatherland Front, took power, marking the beginning of Bulgaria’s communist regime that remained in power until 1989.

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