The Art Nouveau art movement, which emerged at a time characterized by industrial development and the experimentation of new materials, opposed historicism and supported originality and a return to handicrafts. In this context, it is portrayed as an attempt at dialogue between art and industry, reassessing beauty and making it available to everyone through mass production.
Enforced between 1880 and 1920, Art Nouveau was born in Belgium outside an artistic avant-garde circuit and was inspired by nature to create winding, asymmetrical flower and animal lines. Its applications have reverberated primarily in the design of interiors, products, fabrics, garments, jewelry and accessories. Regarding the architecture itself, we consider “materials of the modern world” such as iron, glass, and cement, and praise the rationality of science and engineering. A characteristic that indicates paying attention to the idea of industrialization by bourgeoisie.
Art Nouveau evolved in different ways in the area where it was inserted, but some features, such as the use of organic forms, dominate the work of the time. Asymmetric lines; interest in aesthetic and decorative elements. The presence of stained glass windows, mosaics and structures inspired by the Rococo and Baroque styles.
Despite one of the most famous indices in architecture linking Art Nouveau with other movements such as Neo-Gothic, his project is clear inspiration, natural, asymmetric and rounded. It is Antoni Gaudi of Catalonia who can recognize the spread of the tinged shape. In nature, as in the case of Casa Batllo. In it, architects explore spatiality, patterns and fluid colors, creating a volume that suddenly contrasts with the rigid environment. These bold forms by Gaudi represent the essence of Art Nouveau, characterized by innovative and unusual creations, literally meaning “new art.”
In addition to him, other architects have also become representatives of the movement. For example, Victor Horta in Belgium and his house built for the elite, consisting of carefully crafted iron balconies shaped like plants and the capital, or Charles Macintosh in Scotland. A trend considered “more elegant” by Art Nouveau of the Glasgow School of the Arts project with a more abstract geometric design.
Although the length of the Art Nouveau art movement is considered temporary, its historical importance has an inversely proportional weight, and today as a moment of fundamental transition between historicism and modernism. It is understood. In this sense, the movement has become synonymous with sophistication and lightness in the scope of art and architecture, combining winding shapes of decoration with everyday utilitarianism.